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Functional testing is a type of software testing that evaluates the functional aspects of an application or system. It focuses on verifying that the software behaves according to its specified requirements and functional design. The goal of functional testing is to ensure that the software functions as intended and delivers the expected results. This type of testing is typically performed to assess the system’s functionality from an end-user perspective.

Functional testing can be categorized into several subtypes, including:

1. Unit Testing: Testing individual units or components of the software in isolation to ensure they work correctly.

2. Integration Testing: Verifying the interaction between different components or modules to ensure they integrate seamlessly.

3. Smoke Testing: Conduct preliminary tests to check if the basic functionalities of the software are working as expected.

4. Regression Testing: Re-testing the software after making changes or updates to ensure that the existing functionalities are unaffected.

5. User Acceptance Testing (UAT): Involving end-users to test the software to ensure it meets their requirements and is ready for production.

6. System Testing: Testing the entire system to validate that all components function together correctly.

7. Alpha Testing: Conducted internally by the development team to identify issues before releasing the software to a limited group of users.

8. Beta Testing: Conducted by a selected group of external users who provide feedback on the software before the final release.

9. Functional GUI Testing: Validating the graphical user interface (GUI) to ensure that all elements function as expected.

10. Usability Testing: Assessing the software’s ease of use and user-friendliness.

11. Security Testing: Evaluating the software’s security features to identify vulnerabilities and potential risks.

12. Performance Testing: Assessing how well the software performs under different conditions, such as load, stress, and scalability testing.

Each subtype of functional testing has its specific focus, and they are often performed in combination throughout the software development lifecycle to ensure the overall quality of the application.

Written By: Muhammad Omer Khan

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